Earthquakes don’t only send waves along Earth’s surface, they send certain kinds of waves (P-waves and S-waves) through the Earth itself which can even be read by seismic stations on the other side of the planet. These two kinds of waves interact with solids and liquids within the Earth, being refracted and/or blocked by certain liquid and solid phases, resulting in seismic shadow zones halfway around the globe. You can see it clearly in this GIF of a 2002 Denali quake:
Study enough earthquakes in different places, and you can tell a lot about Earth’s interior.
The idea behind this radical new treatment came from Africa, specifically from a slave named Onesimus, who shared his knowledge with Cotton Mather, the town’s leading minister and his legal owner. Boston still suffered dreadfully, but thanks to Onesimus and Mather, the terror linked to smallpox began to recede after Africans rolled up their sleeves—literally—to show Boston how inoculation worked. The story of how Boston began to overcome smallpox illustrates the strife that epidemics can cause, but also the encouraging notion that humans can communicate remedies as quickly as they communicate germs—and that the solutions we most need often come from the places we least expect to find them.
Mather had come close to choosing a career in medicine, and devoured the scientific publications of the Royal Society in London. As the society began to turn its attention to inoculation practices around the world, Mather realized that he had an extraordinary expert living in his household. Onesimus was a “pretty Intelligent Fellow,” it had become clear to him. When asked if he’d ever had smallpox, Onesimus answered “Yes and No,” explaining that he had been inoculated with a small amount of smallpox, which had left him immune to the disease. Fascinated, Mather asked for details, which Onesimus provided, and showed him his scar. We can almost hear Onesimus speaking in Mather’s accounts, for Mather took the unusual step of writing out his words with the African accent included—the key phrase was, “People take Juice of Small-Pox; and Cutty-skin, and Putt in a Drop.”
Excited, he investigated among other Africans in Boston and realized that it was a widespread practice; indeed, a slave could be expected to fetch a higher price with a scar on his arm, indicating that he was immune. Mather sent the Royal Society his own reports from the wilds of America, eager to prove the relevance of Boston (and by extension, Cotton Mather) to the global crusade against infectious disease. His interviews with Onesimus were crucial. In 1716, writing to an English friend, he promised that he would be ready to promote inoculation if smallpox ever visited the city again.
American History, but something I think a lot of people would be interested to read.
The police union held a press conference today to release information about the killing of VonDerrit Myers, whom they described as “no angel.”
Tuesday, October 14th
people on facebook are trying to say police recovered the gun used in his social media pics on the scene and that the sandwich was stolen……..oh, and somehow he was conveniently covered in GSR on his hands and waistband. because the cops couldn’t have just swiped their own fucking dirty hands on those places and transfered it deliberately.